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Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing® (LIPS®) and the Seeing Stars® Programs

Seeing Stars

Two Underlying Causes:

A primary cause of reading and spelling weaknesses, including dyslexia, is weak phonemic awareness.  Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about and work with the individual sounds (phonemes) in words.  A significant number of people--even some who have received phonics instruction--only perceive words as a whole, and can't tell what the individual sounds are within a word.  Someone with this weakness particularly has difficulty learning and using the vowel sounds. 

A second underlying cause of reading and spelling weaknesses is weak symbol imagery.  Symbol imagery is the ability to recognize and visually recall the “symbols” or letters in words.  A person may also have difficulty connecting the sounds (phonemes) to the letters and thus have difficulty remembering sight words and with reading speed, accuracy, and fluency.   


A Solution:  Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing® (LiPS®) with the Seeing Stars® Programs --for phonemic awareness, reading, spelling, and fluency.

These two programs are research based, comprehensive, systematic, explicit, sequential, multi-sensory reading and spelling programs.  Using a revolutionary phonetic teaching technique, the student discovers how all 24 consonant sounds and 18 vowel sounds are articulated.  The student describes what is working in his/her mouth to make the sound (tongue, lips, teeth, etc.).  He/She labels the sound with a mouth picture and name (label) for each sound like Lip Poppers, Tongue Tappers, etc...The student develops phonemic awareness through the use of colored blocks that help differentiate between sounds in words. 


The client is taught symbol imagery in a variety of exercises which are designed to strengthen the ability to visually recall the letters and words.   He/She progresses in one syllable words from 2, 3, 4, to 5 sounds within a word.   Ten main Spelling rules are taught and reinforced at each level.  Word attack skills and syllabication is taught within 2, 3, 4, and 5 syllable words.  The 1000 Most Commonly Used words are also taught for reading and spelling fluency.   Reading in context is practiced in age graded readers using the SRA and other reading series and comprehension strategies are developed at each level. 


Results measured through diagnostic testing.

Daily repetition, five days a week,  is also a key to the effectiveness of these two programs. Average gains in word attack skills on the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test are 2-4 grade levels.   Most clients are able to complete these programs in 80 to 120 total hours. 

The LiPS® Program was developed by two linguists, Patricia and Charles Lindamood, in 1969 at their clinic in San Luis Obispo, CA.  It was originally named the Auditory Discrimination in Depth Program (ADD).  Their wide experience in education and linguistics gave them unique resources for developing this program for the remediation of learning problems with both children and adults.  Today Lindamood-Bell has clinics in the U.S. as well as several foreign countries.  The Seeing Stars® Program was developed by the co-director of the Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes®, Nanci Bell in 1997.